Papilledema

The word Papilledema defines the swelling of the head of the optic nerve, a sign of increased intracranial pressure. The optic nerve head, also called the optic disk or papilla, is the area where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Every incidence of papilledema requires immediate diagnosis of the underlying causes as increased intracranial pressure is a life-threatening situation

US statistics affirm that Papilledema, or subtypes of Papilledema, affects less than 200,000 people in the US population.
The causes of this pathology include cerebral edema, tumors and other cerebral lesions.

Papilledema recorded with the D-EYE

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Example of Papilledema captured with the
D-EYE Smartphone-Based Retinal Imaging System

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How to perform a retinal examination

The application allows users to capture images of the optic disc of non-mydriatic eyes.  It can be used for Glaucoma screenings without dilation drops. Dilation drops will be required to increase field of view (FOV) to see more retinal structure that would include the observation of AMD and mild non-proliferative retinopathy.

Using the video function will capture maximum retinal structure regardless of dilation. The auto focus function is set for 1cm of distance from the pupil. If the lens is too far away, the results of the exam will not be in focus and the pupil will appear very small. An examination of a non-mydriatic pupil will result in the view of the optic disc and partial retinal structure around the disc. More structure can be seen with a mydriatic pupil. With the optic disc centered, the acquisition protocol would be to pan the retina, starting from the posterior pole and then moving to the upper, nasal, inferior, and nasal peripheral retina to the equator. This exam protocol encompasses the posterior pole, including the macula, optic disc, and peripheral retina.

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