Diabetic Retinopathy

According to the WHO, Diabetic Retinopathy is composed of a "characteristic group of lesions found in the retina of individuals having had diabetes mellitus for several years. The abnormalities that characterise diabetic retinopathy occur in predictable progression with minor variations in the order of their appearance."
Diabetic retinopathy is considered to be the result of vascular changes in the retinal circulation. In the early stages, vascular occlusion and dilations occur. It progresses into a proliferative retinopathy with the growth of new blood vessels. Macular oedema can significantly decrease visual acuity.

The WHO estimated that in 2002 Diabetic Retinopathy accounted for about 5% of world blindness, representing almost 5 million blind all over the world.
As the incidence of diabetes gradually increases every year, there is the possibility that more individuals will suffer from eye complications which, if not properly managed, may lead to permanent eye damage and blindness.

Diabetic Retinopathy recorded with the D-EYE


Example of Diabetic Retinopathy recorded with the
D-EYE Smartphone-Based Retinal Imaging System



A frame taken with the 
D-EYE Smartphone-Based Retinal Imaging System

How to perform a retinal examination

The application allows users to capture images of the optic disc of non-mydriatic eyes.  It can be used for Glaucoma screenings without dilation drops. Dilation drops will be required to increase field of view (FOV) to see more retinal structure that would include the observation of AMD and mild non-proliferative retinopathy.

Using the video function will capture maximum retinal structure regardless of dilation. The auto focus function is set for 1cm of distance from the pupil. If the lens is too far away, the results of the exam will not be in focus and the pupil will appear very small. An examination of a non-mydriatic pupil will result in the view of the optic disc and partial retinal structure around the disc. More structure can be seen with a mydriatic pupil. With the optic disc centered, the acquisition protocol would be to pan the retina, starting from the posterior pole and then moving to the upper, nasal, inferior, and nasal peripheral retina to the equator. This exam protocol encompasses the posterior pole, including the macula, optic disc, and peripheral retina.

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Clinical papers

Many papers have been published about D-EYE. One of these was published in the American Journal of Ophthalmology in 2015
Official paper

Andrea Russo, Francesco Morescalchi, Ciro Costagliola, Luisa Delcassi, Francesco Semeraro


To assess the accuracy and reliability of smartphone ophthalmoscopy, we compared the ability of a smartphone ophthalmoscope with that of a slit-lamp biomicroscope to grade diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Smartphone ophthalmoscopy showed considerable agreement with dilated retinal biomicroscopy for the grading of DR. The portability, affordability, and connectivity of a smartphone ophthalmoscope make smartphone ophthalmoscopy a promising technique for community screening programs.


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