According to the WHO, Cataract is "clouding of the lens of the eye which prevents clear vision. Although most cases of cataract are related to the ageing process, occasionally children can be born with the condition, or a cataract may develop after eye injuries, inflammation, and some other eye diseases."
This pathology remains the leading cause of blindness in the world.
The WHO estimated that cataract is responsible for 51% of world blindness, which represents about 20 million people.
In many remote parts of the developing world, people remain blind from cataract, due to a lack of access to eye care.
Cataract frame recorded with the D-EYE
Example of Cataract captured with the
D-EYE Smartphone-Based Retinal Imaging System
How to perform a retinal examination
The application allows users to capture images of the optic disc of non-mydriatic eyes. It can be used for Glaucoma screenings without dilation drops. Dilation drops will be required to increase field of view (FOV) to see more retinal structure that would include the observation of AMD and mild non-proliferative retinopathy.
Using the video function will capture maximum retinal structure regardless of dilation. The auto focus function is set for 1cm of distance from the pupil. If the lens is too far away, the results of the exam will not be in focus and the pupil will appear very small. An examination of a non-mydriatic pupil will result in the view of the optic disc and partial retinal structure around the disc. More structure can be seen with a mydriatic pupil. With the optic disc centered, the acquisition protocol would be to pan the retina, starting from the posterior pole and then moving to the upper, nasal, inferior, and nasal peripheral retina to the equator. This exam protocol encompasses the posterior pole, including the macula, optic disc, and peripheral retina.
Comparison Study of Funduscopic Exam of Pediatric Patients Using the D-EYE Method and Conventional Indirect Ophthalmoscopic Methods
This paper is about a comparative study in pediatric population for the screening of eye pathologies. You can find references about Congenital Cataract
Drew Dickson, Samiksha Fouzdar-Jain, Collin MacDonald, Helen Song, Daniel Agraz, Linda Morgan, Donny Suh
A prospective study was performed to explore the application of D-EYE in pediatric fundus examinations. Both dilated fundus examinations using the D-EYE and indirect ophthalmoscopiy were performed on patients ages 3-18 years old. Fundus examinations were performed by masked examiners while traditional indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed by apediatric ophthalmologists. The study was performed on 172 eyes from 87 patients. In comparing D-EYE to indirect ophthalmoscopy for detecting fundus abnormalities, the sensitivity was 0.72, specificity was 0.97, positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.77, negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.97, positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 27.8, and negative LR was 0.29.
According to the authors of the study, the D-EYE is an effective tool for fundus evaluation and diagnosing retinal pathology. This device is especially useful for pediatric retinal examination, and retinal examination for poorly compliant patients.